وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ مِّنْهُم مَّعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوٓا۟ أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُوا۟ فَلْيَكُونُوا۟ مِن وَرَآئِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَآئِفَةٌ أُخْرَىٰ لَمْ يُصَلُّوا۟ فَلْيُصَلُّوا۟ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا۟ حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْۗ وَدَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُم مَّيْلَةً وَٰحِدَةًۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰٓ أَن تَضَعُوٓا۟ أَسْلِحَتَكُمْۖ وَخُذُوا۟ حِذْرَكُمْۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا
Bengali – Muhiuddin Khan
যখন আপনি তাদের মধ্যে থাকেন, অতঃপর নামাযে দাঁড়ান, তখন যেন একদল দাঁড়ায় আপনার সাথে এবং তারা যেন স্বীয় অস্ত্র সাথে নেয়। অতঃপর যখন তারা সেজদা সম্পন্ন করে, তখন আপনার কাছ থেকে যেন সরে যায় এবং অন্য দল যেন আসে, যারা নামায পড়েনি। অতঃপর তারা যেন আপনার সাথে নামায পড়ে এবং আত্মরক্ষার হাতিয়ার সাথে নেয়। কাফেররা চায় যে, তোমরা কোন রূপে অসতর্ক থাক, যাতে তারা একযোগে তোমাদেরকে আক্রমণ করে বসে। যদি বৃষ্টির কারণে তোমাদের কষ্ট হয় অথবা তোমরা অসুস্থ হও তবে স্বীয় অস্ত্র পরিত্যাগ করায় তোমাদের কোন গোনাহ নেই এবং সাথে নিয়ে নাও তোমাদের আত্নরক্ষার অস্ত্র। নিশ্চয় আল্লাহ কাফেরদের জন্যে অপমানকর শাস্তি প্রস্তুত করে রেখেছেন।
English – Sahih International
And when you are among them and lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand [in prayer] with you and let them carry their arms. And when they have prostrated, let them be [in position] behind you and have the other group come forward which has not [yet] prayed and let them pray with you, taking precaution and carrying their arms. Those who disbelieve wish that you would neglect your weapons and your baggage so they could come down upon you in one [single] attack. But there is no blame upon you, if you are troubled by rain or are ill, for putting down your arms, but take precaution. Indeed, Allah has prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.
<b>The Description of The Fear Prayer</b>
وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَأيِفَةٌ مِّنْهُم مَّعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُواْ أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُواْ فَلْيَكُونُواْ مِن وَرَايِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَأيِفَةٌ أُخْرَى لَمْ يُصَلُّواْ فَلْيُصَلُّواْ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُواْ حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ وَدَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُم مَّيْلَةً وَاحِدَةً
When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in <b>Salah</b>, let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with you, taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you, taking all the precautions and bearing arms. Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush,
The Fear prayer has different forms, for the enemy is sometimes in the direction of the <b>Qiblah</b> and sometimes in another direction.
The Fear prayer consists sometimes of four <b>Rak`ahs</b>, three <b>Rak`ahs</b>, as for <b>Maghrib</b>, and sometimes two Rak`ah like <b>Fajr</b> and prayer during travel.
The Fear prayer is sometimes prayed in congregation, but when the battle is raging, congregational prayer may not be possible. In this case, they pray each by himself, facing the <b>Qiblah</b> or otherwise, riding or on foot. In this situation, they are allowed to walk and fight, all the while performing the acts of the prayer.
Some scholars said that in the latter case, they pray only one <b>Rak`ah</b>, for Ibn Abbas narrated,
“By the words of your Prophet, Allah has ordained the prayer of four <b>Rak`ah</b> while residing, two <b>Rak`ah</b> during travel, and one <b>Rak`ah</b> during fear.”
Muslim, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah recorded it.
This is also the view of Ahmad bin Hanbal.
“This is the saying of Ata, Jabir, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Al-Hakam, Qatadah and Hammad; and Tawus and Ad-Dahhak also preferred it.”
Abu Asim Al-Abadi mentioned that Muhammad bin Nasr Al-Marwazi said,
the Fajr prayer also becomes one <b>Rak`ah</b> during fear.
This is also the opinion of Ibn Hazm.
Ishaq bin Rahwayh said,
“When a battle is raging, one <b>Rak`ah</b> during which you nod your head is sufficient for you. If you are unable, then one prostration is sufficient, because the prostration is remembrance of Allah.”
<b>The Reason behind Revealing this Ayah</b>
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Ayyash Az-Zuraqi said,
“We were with the Messenger of Allah in the area of Usfan (a well known place near Makkah), when the idolators met us under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid, and they were between us and the <b>Qiblah</b>. The Messenger of Allah led us in <b>Zuhr</b> prayer, and the idolators said, `They were busy with something during which we had a chance to attack them.’
They then said, `Next, there will come a prayer (<b>`Asr</b>) that is dearer to them than their children and themselves.’
However, Jibril came down with these <b>Ayat</b> between the prayers of <b>Zuhr</b> and <b>`Asr</b>,
وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَةَ
(When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in <b>Salah</b> (prayer)).
When the time for prayer came, the Messenger of Allah commanded Muslims to hold their weapons and he made us stand in two lines behind him. When he bowed, we all bowed behind him. When he raised his head, we all raised our heads.
The Prophet then prostrated with the line that was behind him while the rest stood in guard. When they finished with the prostration and stood up, the rest sat and performed prostration, while those who performed it stood up in guard after the two lines exchanged position.
The Prophet then bowed and they all bowed after him, then raised their heads after he raised his head. Then the Prophet performed prostration with the line that was behind him, while the rest stood in guard. When those who made prostration sat, the rest prostrated.
The Prophet then performed the <b>Taslim</b> and ended the prayer.
The Messenger of Allah performed this prayer twice, once in Usfan and once in the land of Banu Sulaym.”‘
This is the narration recorded by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i, and it has an authentic chain of narration and many other texts to support it.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said,
“Once the Prophet led the Fear prayer and the people stood behind him. He said <b>Allahu-Akbar</b> and the people said the same. He bowed and some of them bowed. Then he prostrated and they also prostrated. Then he stood for the second <b>Rak`ah</b> and those who had prayed the first <b>Rak`ah</b> left and guarded their brothers. The second party joined him and performed bowing and prostration with him. All the people were in prayer, but they were guarding one another during the prayer.”
Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said that;
the Messenger of Allah led them in the Fear prayer. A group of them stood before him and a group behind him. The Prophet led those who were behind him with one <b>Rak`ah</b> and two prostrations. They then moved to the position of those who did not pray, while the others stood in their place, and the Messenger of Allah performed one <b>Rak`ah</b> and two prostrations and then said the <b>Salam</b>. Therefore, the Prophet prayed two Rak`ah while they prayed one.
An-Nasa’i recorded this <b>Hadith</b>, while Muslim collected other wordings for it.
Collectors of the <b>Sahih</b>, <b>Sunan</b> and <b>Musnad</b> collections recorded this in a <b>Hadith</b> from Jabir.
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Salim said that;
his father said,
وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَةَ
(When you (O Messenger Muhammad) are among them, and lead them in <b>Salah</b> (prayer)) refers to the Fear prayer.
The Messenger of Allah led one group and prayed one <b>Rak`ah</b>, while the second group faced the enemy. Then the second group that faced the enemy came and Allah’s Messenger led them, praying one <b>Rak`ah</b>, and then said the <b>Salam</b>. Each of the two groups then stood up and prayed one more <b>Rak`ah</b> each (while the other group stood in guard).”
The Group collected this <b>Hadith</b> with Ma`mar in its chain of narrators.
This <b>Hadith</b> also has many other chains of narration from several Companions, and Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah collected these various narrations, as did Ibn Jarir.
As for the command to hold the weapons during the Fear prayer,
a group of scholars said that it is obligatory according to the <b>Ayah</b>. What testifies to this is that Allah said;
وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَن تَضَعُواْ أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ وَخُذُواْ حِذْرَكُمْ
But there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves,
meaning, so that when necessary, you will be able to get to your weapons easily.
إِنَّ اللّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا
Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers
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